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Sunday, September 18

  1. page References edited References Abrami, P. C., Bernard, R., Wade, A., Schmid, R. F., Borokhovski, E., Tamin, R., e…

    References
    Abrami, P. C., Bernard, R., Wade, A., Schmid, R. F., Borokhovski, E., Tamin, R., et al. (2008). A Review of e-Learning in Canada: A Rough Sketch of the Evidence, Gaps and Promising Directions. Canadian Journal Of Learning And Technology / La Revue Canadienne De L’Apprentissage Et De La Technologie, 32(3).
    Ahmed, A. (2010, 6 October). Being taught in English 'undermines local identity', The National. Retrieved from http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/education/being-taught-in-english-undermines-local-identity
    Al Khaili, M. K. (2010). ADEC -welcome from the Director General Retrieved 27 March, 2011, from http://www.adec.ac.ae/English/Pages/DirectorGeneral%27sMessage.aspx
    CentralCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. (2009). What is culture? Retrieved 20 August, 2011, from http://www.carla.umn.edu/culture/definitions.html
    Central
    Intelligence Agency.
    ...
    2011, from https:www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2178rank.html
    Godwin, S. M. (2006). Globalization, education and Emiratization: a case study
    https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2178rank.html//
    Commission
    of the United Arab Emirates. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 27(0). European Communities. (2001). E-learning action plan: designing tomorrow's education. Brussels.
    Dfes. (2003). Towards a unified learning e-learning strategy. London: HMSO. Retrieved fromhttp://www.education.gov.uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/towards%20a%20unified%20e-learning%20strategy.pdf

    Dutta, S., & Mia, I. (2010). Global information technology report 2009-2010: ICT for sustainabiity: World Economic Forum
    Edmundson, A. L. (2005). The cross-cultural dimensions of globalized e-learning. International journal of information and communication technology education, 1(2), 47-61.
    Godwin, S. M. (2006). Globalization, education and Emiratization: a case study of the United Arab Emirates. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 27(0).

    Gray, J. (2002). The global coursebook in English Language Teaching. In D. Block & D. Cameron (Eds.), Globalization and language teaching (pp. 151-167). London: Routledge.
    Halstead, J. M. (2004). An Islamic Concept of Education. Comparative Education, 40(4), 517-529.
    HBMeU. (2011). Hamdan Bin Mohammed e-University Retrieved 5 September, 2011, from http://www.hbmeu.ac.ae/
    Hofstede, G. (1983). National cultures in four dimensions. International Studies of Management & Organization, 13(1/2), 46-74.
    Hofstede, G. (1994). The business of international business is culture. International Business Review, 3(1), 1-14.
    Maps of India. Retrieved 6 September, 2011, from http://www.mapsofindia.com/education
    Ministry of Education. (2007). The New Zealand Curriculum. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media

    National Admissions and Placement Office. (2010). Your guide to higher education. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research Retrieved from https:www.mohesr.gov.ae/en/Documents/napo1.pdf.
    National Bureau of Statistics. (2005). Census 2005. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: National Bureau of Statistics Retrieved from http://www.uaestatistics.gov.ae.
    Nichols, M. (2008). No.1:E-Learning in Context. Wellington, New Zealand: Ako Aotearoa. Retrieved from http://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/download/ng/file/group-661/n877-1---e-learning-in-context.pdf
    Richardson, P. M. (2004). Possible influences of Arabic-Islamic culture on the reflective practices proposed for an education degree at the Higher Colleges of Technology in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Educational Development, 24(4), 429-436.
    Shamseddine, M. (2005, 20 November). UAE aims to become key e-learning centre, Gulf News. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/education/uae-aims-to-become-key-e-learning-centre-1.445301
    Syed, I. (2010, October 7). Learning English will not dilute Arabic culture, The National. Retrieved from http://www.thenational.ae/news/learning-english-will-not-dilute-arabic-culture
    Tylee, J. (2001). Cultural issues relating to access perceptions and learning styles in the online environment. Retrieved from http://www.education4skills.com/jtylee/culture.html
    United Arab Emirates University. (2009). Creation of an internationally recognized, research-intensive university for the UAE by transforming the United Arab Emirates University: Action steps and necessary investments. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: United Arab Emirates University.
    Wikipedia. United Arab Emirates Retrieved 8 September, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Arab_Emirates
    Abrami, P. C., Bernard, R., Wade, A., Schmid, R. F., Borokhovski, E., Tamin, R., et al. (2008). A Review of e-Learning in Canada: A Rough Sketch of the Evidence, Gaps and Promising Directions. Canadian Journal Of Learning And Technology / La Revue Canadienne De L’Apprentissage Et De La Technologie, 32(3).
    Belk, R.W. Hyper-reality and Globalization: Culture in the Age of Ronald McDonald, Journal of International Consumer Marketing. Vol 8, No 3.4, 1996, pp 23- 27.
    Block, D., & Cameron, D. (Eds.). (2002). Globalization and language teaching. London: Routledge
    Critical Success Factors for Effective Use of e-Learning with Mäori Learners accessed on 8 June 2011 at http://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/download/ng/file/group-996/n3981-critical-success-factors-for-effective-use-of-elearning-with-mori-learners.pdf
    Commission of the European Communities. (2001). E-learning action plan: designing tomorrow's education. Brussels.
    Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. (2009). What is culture? Retrieved 20 August, 2011, from http://www.carla.umn.edu/culture/definitions.html
    Dutta, S., & Mia, I. (2010). Global information technology report 2009-2010: ICT for sustainabiity: World Economic For
    Dfes. (2003). Towards a unified learning e-learning strategy. London: HMSO. Retrieved fromhttp://www.education.gov.uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/towards%20a%20unified%20e-learning%20strategy.pdf
    Ferguson, S.L. Key elements for a Māori e-Learning framework accessed on 8 June 2011 at http://www.review.mai.ac.nz/index.php/MR/article/viewFile/173/176
    Knight, P. (Ed). (1996). Assessment for learning in higher education. London: Kogan Page, SEDA Series
    ITP New Zealand. A Literature Review on Kaupapa Maori and Maori Educational Pedagogy. November , 2004.
    Olaniran, B.A. Discerning Culture in E-Learning and in the Global Workplaces. Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, Vol.1, No.3. pp 180 – 195.
    Ministry of Education. (2007). The New Zealand Curriculum. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media
    McFadzean, E. (2001). Supporting virtual learning groups. Part 1: A pedagogical perspective. Team Per-formance Management, 7 (3,4), 53-62
    Moore, M. (2000). Is distance teaching more work or less? The American Journal of Distance Education, 14 (3).
    Nachimuthu, K.(2010) .Usability of eLearning Resources in Teacher Education of India. The Seventh International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, 16-17 December 2010, Thailand
    Nichols, M. (2008). No.1:E-Learning in Context. Wellington, New Zealand: Ako Aotearoa. Retrieved from http://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/download/ng/file/group-661/n877-1---e-learning-in-context.pdf
    Wellburn, E., & Claeys, G. (2004). Community-based distributed learning in a globalized world. In C. Howard, K. Schenk & R. Discenza (Eds.), Distance learning and university effectiveness: Changing paradigms for online learning (pp. 79-97). London: Idea Group.
    Umrani-Khan, F. & Iyer, S.(2008). ELAM: A Model for Acceptance and Use of E-learning by Teachers and Students .Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.
    Williams,
    Williams, J.B. & Goldberg, M.(2005).M. (2005). The evolution
    ...
    e-learning.Retrieved from
    www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/brisbane05/blogs/.World
    www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/brisbane05/blogs/.
    World
    Trade Organisation Education Services Report(1999).Report (1999). Retrieved from
    http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/16/26/1853954.pdf.
    Yuen, H.K.A. and Ma, W.W.K. (2008) “Exploring Teacher Acceptance of e-learning Technology”,
    Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp 229–243.
    http://www.mapsofindia.com/education accessed 6th September, 2011.
    http://www.kapilbhatia.com/index.php?/elearning-in-indiaaccessed 6th September 2011.
    http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/keyword/e-learning/featured/2accessed 6th September 2011
    http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/16/26/1853954.pdf.
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    10:48 am
  2. page Hofstede's Cross Cultural Dimensions edited Hofstede's Cross-Cultural Dimensions Geert Hofstede proposed his four cultural dimensions follo…

    Hofstede's Cross-Cultural Dimensions
    Geert Hofstede proposed his four cultural dimensions following a research project during the 1980's, in which he surveyed the staff of a multinational corporation (IBM) and its subsidiaries of in 64 countries (Hofstede, 1994)
    Individualism Index (IDV)
    The individualism index measures the importance of the individual as opposed to the collective. A high IDV indicates a culture in which a person looks out for themselves and their immediate family. A low IDV indicates a collectivist culture in which people belong to strong groups which protect the interest of its members but in turn demands permanent loyalty.
    ...
    (Edmundson, A. L. (2005). The cross-cultural dimensions of globalized e-learning. International journal of information and communication technology education, 1(2), 47-61.)
    You can find more examples in Hofstede, G. (1994). The business of international business is culture. International Business Review, 3(1), 1-14.
    Download here Hofstede94.doc
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    10:31 am
  3. page Hofstede's Index Comparisons edited Hofstede's Index Comparisons Hofstede, G. (1994) (Hofstede, 1983, p.54) Learn more about Ho…

    Hofstede's Index Comparisons
    Hofstede, G. (1994)(Hofstede, 1983, p.54)
    Learn more about Hofstede's work here
    Power distance
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    10:21 am
  4. page Hofstede's Index Comparisons edited Hofstede's Index Comparisons Hofstede, G. (1994) Learn more about Hofstede's work here Powe…

    Hofstede's Index Comparisons
    Hofstede, G. (1994)
    Learn more about Hofstede's work here
    Power distance
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    10:11 am
  5. page Hofstede's Cross Cultural Dimensions edited ... See 261.764 Foundations of ELearning, reading 19 page 45 for examples of what the idea means f…
    ...
    See 261.764 Foundations of ELearning, reading 19 page 45 for examples of what the idea means for teachers and students.
    (Edmundson, A. L. (2005). The cross-cultural dimensions of globalized e-learning. International journal of information and communication technology education, 1(2), 47-61.)
    ...
    more examples inHofstede,in Hofstede, G. (1994).
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  6. page India edited ... In the present century, it is doubtless to say that India has begun her mission of crumbling t…
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    In the present century, it is doubtless to say that India has begun her mission of crumbling the ivory towers of traditionalism in teaching and learning process. In other words, India is marching ahead to embrace e-learning culture for various reasons. According to Williams and Goldberg (2005), the main reason is ,the Indian government’s realization of the fact that a robust higher education sector is vital for international competitiveness and a subsequent inflow of funding. The government has set an objective of making universities more market-oriented. There is pressure on universities to be a lot more creative in producing effective learners who can contribute well to the society. Universities are forced to address the needs of non-traditional learners as their number is increasing gradually.
    According to the 1999 Trade Organisation’s Education Services Report, by 2020, demand for higher education in India is predicted to grow dramatically. So it has been estimated that the growth in non-traditional learners numbers would pave way to the development of new courses which require crystal clear evidence of learner centeredness. So the present day student profiles are gradually changing, specifically socially and economically. E-learning has been recognized as effective medium for the delivery of tertiary-level courses, allowing students to become fitful members of the society. The educators and professionals have found flexible delivery as a mantra for tertiary educational institutions as they seek to satisfy the existing non-traditional students.
    ...
    Goldberg & Williams(2001)Williams (2001) pointed out,
    Is e-Learning occurring in India?
    The answer is a big ‘Yes’. According to Dutta & Mia (2010),
    ...
    From the figures, it can be understood that India has highest PDI indication compared to the other dimensions. In other words, a high level of inequality exists in various areas such as power, wealth, caste and education. A High Power Distance ranking indicates that inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens(http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/hofstede.htm). When we analyze the Indian classroom culture through this lens, we can find power discrepancy between teacher and the taught. Teachers are considered as gurus who transfer knowledge to their subordinates-students. Students are considered as passive recipients of knowledge, thus unequal power distribution exists between two parties; teachers and students.
    **Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)**
    ...
    Low Uncertainty AvoidancerankingAvoidance ranking indicates the
    **Individualism Index (IDV)**
    The very low Individualism Index(IDV) score indicates that there is a positive inclination toward collectivist society. Collectivist cultures always value harmony and being silent in all situations. Students in classrooms show ‘un-questioned loyalty’ and never attempt to exercise freedom in classrooms. A Low Individualism ranking typifies societies of a more collectivist nature with close ties between individuals. These cultures reinforce extended families and collectives where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.
    ...
    India has Masculinity Index (MAS) as the third highest ranking Hofstede Dimension at 56, with the world average just slightly lower at 51. It connotes that there is a greater gap between values of men and women. In other words, the traditional distinction between the roles are strictly maintained.
    Conclusion
    ...
    Goldberg (2005) pointed,pointed out, education in
    ...
    the side' isand becoming the
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  7. page India edited ... Historical Background of Indian Education {http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxKUVw7AA…
    ...
    Historical Background of Indian Education
    {http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxKUVw7AALy7e7SBgu2kF6NP3Av51CFZe6lUsQ_N4sI_fyq0HoNECvZg} The Gurukula System
    ...
    the nation.
    After

    After
    independence, education
    ...
    in the country .Currently,country. Currently, there are
    The Evolution of e-Learning in India
    {http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTc2Hygh1wZXYxzgP_PXF2ktOy3Vgx1XPoSTKf2xixmSNL8mO0SiIFBzQ}
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  8. page India edited ... Historical Background of Indian Education {http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxKUVw7AA…
    ...
    Historical Background of Indian Education
    {http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxKUVw7AALy7e7SBgu2kF6NP3Av51CFZe6lUsQ_N4sI_fyq0HoNECvZg} The Gurukula System
    ...
    popular in th
    ose
    those days. So
    ...
    the nation. In other words, Hofestede’s power distance index had a great influence on the wide disparity in the society.
    After independence, education for all was the mission of the government. The unhealthy practice of discriminations was removed by the 86th Constitutional Amendments and education has been made compulsory for the age group 6 to 14. The significant gap between the rate of urban and rural literacy is being bridged and the UGC was set up in the year 1953 to regulate the processes of educational development in the country .Currently, there are 17000 plus colleges, around 20 universities (central), 217 universities (state), and many deemed universities as well as national institutions. The national institutions of international fame are the IIT's and the IIM's. The Indian School of Business (ISB) in Hyderabad holds a global rank of 15 in the field of management education (www.mapsofindia.com/education)
    The Evolution of e-Learning in India
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  9. page United Arab Emirates edited ... Individualism Index (IDV) Again Arab countries rank just below the mid-point on the Individu…
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    Individualism Index (IDV)
    Again Arab countries rank just below the mid-point on the Individualism Index but with a relatively low score indicating a tendency towards a collectivist society. This means that people tend to integrate in cohesive in-groups and display "un-questioned loyalty". This fits well with the concept of 'wasta' observed in the UAE. Wasta roughly translates to influence or 'who you know'. In western cultures it has negative connotations but it is an accepted way of life in the Arab world. The wasta or connections you have the easier it is to get things done.
    ...
    the collective”.
    Masculinity Index (MAS)
    The very low Masculinity Index score for Arab countries indicates what Hofstede describes as a feminine culture, one in which men and women are more likely to have similar roles. This seems to conflict with the strict gender segregation and expectations imposed by Islamic traditions. Nevertheless Hofstede's contention that in a low MAS culture, teachers and students have more relaxed expectations agrees with observed classroom practice in Abu Dhabi.
    The work of Richardson (2004) in a study of students at the Higher Colleges of Technology in Abu Dhabi highlights the difficulty in imposing western teaching ideologies onto an Arabic culture. The study found that “high power distance and low individualism means that the ideas of those in authority are rarely publicly criticised” and so education programmes that required students to engage in reflective practice, to debate and question were difficult for Emiratis to embrace.
    Globalisation
    The UAE is determined to compete on the global stage. It clearly wishes to reduce its reliance on oil revenues and expand into other sectors. Education is seen as crucial in this endevour. In his welcoming message on the website of the Abu Dhabi Education Council, the Director General states “Our graduates should be independent thinkers with the ability to create, innovate, and support the economic and social progression of Abu Dhabi.” and “if we want Abu Dhabi to take its place as a leader on the world stage and if we want our citizens and residents to have the necessary skills to compete in an international marketplace” (Al Khaili, 2010)
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