The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) (2009) says;
culture is defined as the shared patterns of behaviors and interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding that are learned through a process of socialization. These shared patterns identify the members of a culture group while also distinguishing those of another group.
Further definitions of culture, from a variety of scholars, can be viewed at the CARLA website


Globalisation can be defined as an increasingly connected economic space (Wellburn & Claeys, 2004). Supporters of globalisation see it as an important force for economic growth and the reduction of poverty in developing countries. Opponents see a widening gap between rich and poor and the destruction of “human diversity and cultural integrity” (Wellburn & Claeys, 2004, p. 81). Further it is seen as hegemonically Western, an extension of Americanisation (Block & Cameron, 2002).


eLearning and its equivalents – (e)learning, e-learning, e-Learning – means different things to different people.
In tertiary education it is generally assumed to mean a variation of distance education in which delivery is through electronic means. The focus is on the mechanism for distribution of content and facilitation of communication. The European eLearning Action Plan (Commission of European Communities, 2001) defines e-learning as the use of new multimedia technologies and the Internet to improve the quality of learning by facilitating access to resources and services as well as remote exchanges and collaboration.
In recent times and especially in the primary and secondary education sectors, eLearning has taken a broader meaning. The Canadian Council on Learning (CCL) defines eLearning as “the development of knowledge and skills through the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs)” (cited in Philip C. Abrami et al., 2008). In the UK, the Department for Education and Skills said “E-learning exploits interactive technologies and communication systems to improve the learning experience.” (Dfes, 2003, p. 7) The New Zealand Ministry of Education defines eLearning as “learning that is supported or facilitated by ICT” (Ministry of Education, 2007, p. 36). Another contemporary definition says “E-learning is pedagogy empowered by digital technology” (Nichols, 2008, p. 2).
Since this work is concerned with the tertiary sector we acknowledge that e-learning can mean any learning that is supported or facilitated by ICT but will focus on the subset of this related to distance education.